Geographical Characteristic: Masaka District is one of the oldest districts in Uganda. Originally, it consisted of Rakai, Kalangala, Sembabule, Kalungu, Bukomansimbi and Lwengo making it once the largest district in Uganda. Today Masaka has been reduced in size after Rakai, Kalangala, Sembabule, Kalungu, Bukomansimbi and Lwengo were elevated to the district status.
Masaka District is situated about 37 kms, away from the equator towards the south and lies between 00-25 south, and 340 East, having an average altitude of 1150m above sea level. Bukomansimbi boards the district in the south east, Kalungu in the north, Rakai and Lwengo in the west and south, and Kalangala District in the east. Masaka District Local Government Rolled Development Plan 2010/2011 – 2014/2015 1.3.3 Topography: Masaka district has a total area of about 1603.3sq.kilometers of which land area is 803.5sq.Kilometers. The landscape and topography in general is rolling and undulating with vertical gully heads and valley bottom swamps including streams flowing to lakes and rivers. Most parts of the district are dotted with the hills.
The soil texture is varied from place to place ranging from red laterite, sandy loam and loam but is in general productive. Soils are generally Ferrallitic, characterized by red coloured sandy clay loams within the Municipality and yellowish sandy loams in the surrounding areas. Along the shores of Lake Victoria, soils are hydromorphic.
There is a huge amount of water flows through streams to lake and river every year more especially in rainy season.
Rainfall, temperature, Humidity and Winds. The Climate of Masaka District is tropical in nature, being modified by relief and nearness to Lake Victoria. The rainfall pattern is bimodal having two seasons with dry spells between July and August, and January to March. The months of March, April and May receive very heavy and well-distributed rains of up to 1,200mm. The second season occurs in the months of September to December. With the exception of a few years of declining trend in precipitation, the annual average rainfall received is between 1100mm – 1200mm with 100 – 110 rainy days. The average maximum temperature does not exceed 300 C and the minimum not below 100 C with almost equal length of day and night throughout the year. The humidity level is generally low throughout the district with the exception of lakeshore areas where it tends to rise.
The total geographical area of the district Masaka is about 1603.3sq km out of which 801.5sq km are open water, wetlands and marshlands, and 308.3 hectares are under cultivation. The total gazette forest estate is about 8905.6 hectares, constituting about 6.38% of the total land area of the district. Scattered natural forests are also found along lakeshores.
On mineral resources, no major geological studies have been out in the district to determine presence of minerals. However, there are indications about the abundant clay and sand that can be used for glass manufacturing. The major deposits are located on the shores of Lake Victoria like at Bukakata. Geological studies need to be carried out to assess the potentials. There are a number of stone queries and clay deposits that are used for providing construction materials. Efforts are being stepped up to have revenue mobilized and collected from these sources.